Final Technical Report

Regional Analysis and Characterization of Fractured Aquifers in the Virginia Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces

Agreement Number DE-FG07-96ID13454

Submitted by
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

to

U. S. Department of Energy

by
John K. Costain

Phone:(540) 231-8912
Fax: (540) 231-3386
e-mail: costain@vt.edu






















Department of Geological Sciences
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
July 25, 2000

Personnel of Project

John K. Costain, Principal Investigator and Professor Emeritus of Geophysics, Department of Geological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Mildred L. Memitt, Computer Operator Technician, Department of Geological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, now retired.

Overview

The title of this research project is Regional Analysis and Characterization of Fractured Aquifers in the Virginia Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces. This is somewhat misleading, however, (except for the abstracts submitted in an earlier Progress Report). The original project was entitled Archival of Geothermal Exploration Data and was started in 1995 to make available to the public the extensive geothermal database for the southeastern United States that was generated between 1976-1982 as part of DOE Contracts E-(40-1)-5103, ET-78-C-05-5648, and DE-AC05-78ET-27001 to Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. An Annual Report was prepared for the Federal Geothermal Research Program Update for Fiscal Year 1997. An expanded proposal entitled Regional Analysis and Characterization of Fractured Aquifers in the Virginia Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces was submitted to DOE in 1997 that would include not only the archival task but also research in the following general context:

Areas related to low-temperature geothermal applications include the recognition of and exploration for deep fracture permeability in crystalline rocks. It is well known that the best currently available downhole techniques to identify the locations of fracture zones in crystalline rocks depend upon the measurement of some thermal parameter such as temperature or heat flow. The temperature-depth profiles and their derivatives provide a direct indication of those fracture zones that conduct water. The exploration for new groundwater resources is considered by many to be the new frontier in the general field of hydrology. The availability of adequate groundwater resources in fractured rocks is a major concern in many areas of the eastern United States as well as in other parts of the world. A geothermal data base can therefore become an important source of basic data that can be used to help characterize the nature and extent of hydraulic conductivity in fractured rocks. We plan to continue to augment our web site (http://rglsun1.geol.vt.edu) with new geothermal data as the data become available, and to advertise the increasing residential uses of geothermal energy in the eastern United States.

Although only the archival task was approved for funding in June, 1997, the proposed project title Regional Analysis and Characterization of Fractured Aquifers in the Virginia Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces was retained.

The geothermal data sets were acquired by Virginia Tech during the period 1976-1982 under U.S. Department of Energy Contracts EY-76-S-05-4920 (Hot Springs, VA), E-(40-1)-5103 (May 1, 1976 - Sept. 30, 1977), ET-78-C-05-5648 (Oct. 1, 1977 - Sept. 30, 1979), and DE-AC05-78ET-27001 (Oct. 1, 1979 - June 30, 1982) and are displayed on the Geothermal Web Site at Virginia Tech at URL

http://rglsun1.geol.vt.edu

Project Objectives

  1. To convert remaining geothermal data sets obtained by Virginia Tech to standard, readily-accessible formats.
  2. To process the data sets to obtain suitable displays, including plots of temperature and geothermal gradient logs. Scan 7-1/2 minute quadrangles where appropriate. Suitable displays include annotated location maps.
  3. To write the seismic data sets to tape. It was subsequently decided that a better approach would be to write the data to a CD.
  4. Prepare explanatory text material to accompany data sets.
  5. To assemble all data sets and text in hypertext markup language for easy access and use on the World Wide Web by industry and academia.

Development of the Virginia Tech Geothermal web site has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under this grant. The actual physical files reside on a Virginia Tech server at http://rglsun1.geol.vt.edu at the Computing Center on the campus of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. In addition, as part of the project objectives, Beta Version 0.9 of the geothermal web site on a CD is now complete and a CD has been produced and included with this report. The directory structure and all of the files at http://rglsun1.geol.vt.edu have been formatted on the CD in such a way that, with a browser (Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator), a user can use the CD while either online or offline. The CD has been organized so that if the user is online while using the CD, all off-CD links (such as http://www.eren.doe.gov/geothermal/) become automatically active. If the user is offline while using the CD, then all of the data presently at http://rglsun1.geol.vt.edu are immediately available (no download time) and the user is automatically prompted to connect to the internet to access any off-CD links. The development of "web browsers" like Internet Explorer or Netscape has thus resulted in an efficient and cost-effective way to make accessible to public and private sectors large amounts of basic data that would otherwise never be published except in summary or interpreted form. It would seem that this "web browser/CD" approach might be desireable for many different kinds of data sets, and might become a new standard for dissemination of basic scientific data. A further advantage is that updated CDs (later versions) can be produced as additional data become available.

Examples

Copies of the CD have been sent to Dr. Marshall Reed, U.S. Department of Energy Program Manager for Geothermal Exploration & Reservoir Research, Office of Geothermal Technologies, and to Dr. Joel Renner, Technical Monitor, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls. Their advice on labeling of the CD, how to acknowledge sponsorship, how to advertise availability of the CD, and subsequent distribution of the CD has been requested.

A few examples are included on the following pages to illustrate what is on the web site/CD.


Virginia Tech Geothermal Data WWW Home Page

Geothermal Data at Regional Geophysics Laboratory

John K. Costain
Department of Geological Sciences
1046 Derring Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0422
Phone:(540) 231-8912, Fax:(540) 231-3386

Version 1.03


Welcome to the WWW home page for southeastern United States Geothermal Data at the Regional Geophysics Laboratory in the Department of Geological Sciences at Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University. Development of this site was funded primarily by the Department of Energy under Agreement Number DE-FG07-96ID13454 to Virginia Tech. The site is useful for those interested in terrestrial heat flow, practical applications of low-temperature geothermal energy, and also provides an excellent  temperature versus depth data base for those wanting to do their own calculations to evaluate the hypothesis of global warming. This site is frequently updated to include temperature data from hundreds of temperature and other geophysical logs, rock thermal conductivity, and heat flow values from New Jersey to Georgia. Datasets can be displayed and/or downloaded for use by the user. Clicking on the items below will provide information on the data available. To browse this page correctly we suggest that you get a copy of the Microsoft Internet Explorer or the Netscape Navigator.


Heat contained within the Earth that can be recovered and put to useful work is called geothermal energy. The heat energy is contained in normal occurrences of subsurface groundwater, which is transported to the surface of the earth by pumping. Low- to moderate-temperature (20oC to 150oC [68oF to 302oF]) geothermal resources in the United States are widespread and are used to provide direct heat for homes and industry. High-temperature (above 150oC [302oF]) geothermal resources in the United States, present primarily in the west, are used in electric power generation. And, throughout the country, the stable temperature of the ground just below the surface can be used by geothermal heat pumps to both heat and cool buildings (geothermal energy). The low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources constitute an important renewable non-electric power energy resource that is just beginning to be utilized in the eastern United States to heat and cool buildings. As these space-heating applications grow in popularity to include entire residential and industrial complexes instead of just single residential dwellings or buildings, we will need to know more about the deeper (to many kilometers), and therefore hotter, fractured rocks that make up the groundwater plumbing system that cradles the geothermal fluids. The higher the water temperature, the more efficient will be the geothermal resource. Although the groundwater temperatures in the eastern United States are relatively low, it is well known from a thermodynamic standpoint that a lot of warm water at a lower temperature is considerably better from the standpoint of geothermal resource potential than a little water of considerably higher temperature. Thus, the nature and quantity of the deeper and warmer normal groundwater resources needs to be explored and better defined. This web site is dedicated to a description of what we know so far about the data base in the southeastern United States that will allow us to use this renewable resource in the future.


U.S. Department of Energy -- Geothermal Energy Technical Site. -- Includes the latest DOE Geothermal Project Research Summaries.

U.S. Department of Energy -- Office of Geothermal Technologies

flame What is Geothermal Energy?
flame What is a Geothermal Heat Pump?
flame Direct-Use Applications of Geothermal Energy
flame Geo-Heat Center
flame Building a new house? Take a look at this site!
flame Want to save a lot of money on your heating and air-conditioning bills? See Sound Investment here.
flame Want the name of a geothermal contractor in your area?

Related Links

Hot Springs in the Southeastern United States

Geothermal Energy in the Eastern and Southeastern United States

flameNew Jersey
flameMaryland
flameDelaware
flameVirginia
flameNorth Carolina
flameSouth Carolina
flameGeorgia

Temperatures at the Base of the Atlantic Coastal Plain Sediments

Evidence from Precision Temperature logs for Deep Fracture Permeability in Crystalline Rocks in the Eastern and Southeastern United States

Regional Geophysics Laboratory, Department of Geological Sciences,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University / comments to: costain@vt.edu


Last updated: 11/28/00


Area 1 Virginia

Area 1 Cripple Creek USGS-2 USGS-5 USGS-1 PT-1 PT-2 MN-1 PT-3 SF-1 PE-1 LK-1 Back Creek HS-1 HS-2 CL1 NW1 PRMTN PF-1 Poff 2-2 ICC


º
Title

Virginia Well Data - Area 2

This section contains the actual data in tabular form. Data can be downloaded by clicking on the desired well number (see below) or on the map, and then selecting File and Save As under your Web browser menu. The section also contains the logs themselves for viewing.

Wells shown in red or blue. Red denotes heat flow value available; blue denotes only temperature and the geothermal gradient are available because no core was available for thermal conductivity determinations.

Seismic lines shown in red.

Area 2 Confirmation of Radiogenic Model Crisfield Area Crisfield Deep Geothermal Test C-59 C-55 C-56 C-28 C-27 C-60 C-24 C-23 C-26 C-25 C-22

C22 C23 C24 C25 C26 C27 C28 C29 C48
C49 C55 C56 C57 C59 C60 KPL15 LA1 LA2
LA3 LA4 OW1 OW5 OW87 OW90 TA1 WP1 56N1

Title

Portsmouth, Virginia High-Resolution Seismic Line

Seismic data were acquired to estimate the thickness of the Atlantic Coastal Plain sedimentary insulator. The sediments are of low thermal conductivity with respect to the underlying crystalline or Triassic "basement" rocks. Thus, higher temperatures at shallower depths will be found in these sediments wherever they can be found to overlie heat-producing granite bodies (The Radiogenic Model). The use of common-depth-point reflection seismology was found to be an excellent geophysical method to monitor changes in thickness of the water-saturated sediments that make up most of the discontinuous, near-marine sediments beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Indeed, further south, such water-saturated sediments are known to cradle the largest aquifers in the world. Most of the sediments beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain can be described as deltaic or near-marine in origin, and the individual reflections are consequently not continuous over large distances. On the other hand, the shallower, large-amplitude reflections also shown in the figure at about 0.25 sec two-way traveltime are characteristic of widespread marine deposits, which are much more laterally continuous . The quality of reflection seismic data obtained by Virginia Tech anywhere on the Atlantic Coastal Plain was found to be excellent.

The unpublished data below were acquired by the Virginia Tech seismic crew using higher resolution vibroseis shooting parameters than those used for the rest of the Portsmouth, VA, area. The vertical scale in the figure below is in seconds of two-way vertical traveltime. The average velocity of the sediments is about 2000 meters/sec. Therefore, the strong, continuous reflections shown at about 0.25 sec originate from a depth of about 250 meters.

Portsmouth high resolution line

References

Bielanski, E., 1981, A Seismic Reflection Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain near Portsmouth, Virginia. M.S. Thesis in Geophysics, Department of Geological Sciences Virginia Tech.


C-25 VA Location Map


Table of temperature versus depth data
Plot of temperature/gradient versus depth
Table of thermal conductivity data
Table of heat production data
Table of gamma log data
Plot of gamma log data
 
See also Radiogenic Model


C-25 temperature plot


Gamma log plot


This file contains temperature (deg C) versus depth (m). The letterF refers to the Fth (6th) log that was run in this hole. Each well was logged several times to monitor temperature changes after the well was drilled in order to establish when thermal equilibrium was reached. This table can bedownloaded in the usual way using the File options in your Web browser.

C25A F CHESAPEAKE VA lat 36 51.01 long 76 28.83 9/07/79 MCCLUNG

Temp (C) Depth (m) pairs follow.

21.482 10.300 21.446 10.809 21.411 11.318 21.371 11.827 21.329 12.336 21.287 12.845 21.249 13.354 21.208 13.863 21.164 14.372 21.125 14.881 18.883 15.390 16.729 15.899 16.705 16.408 16.662 16.917 16.641 17.426 16.628 17.935 16.629 18.444 16.628 18.953 16.629 19.462 16.631 19.971 16.646 20.480 16.642 20.989 16.646 21.498 16.655 22.007 16.659 22.516 16.665 23.025 16.672 23.534 16.678 24.043 16.686 24.552 16.695 25.061 16.704 25.570 16.717 26.079 16.729 26.588 16.739 27.097 16.747 27.606 16.752 28.115 16.760 28.624 16.764 29.133 16.771 29.642 16.780 30.151 16.789 30.660 16.795 31.169 16.807 31.678 16.823 32.187 16.833 32.696 16.847 33.205 16.863 33.714 16.883 34.223 16.901 34.732 16.914 35.241 16.932 35.750 16.952 36.259 16.973 36.768 16.988 37.277 17.006 37.786 17.022 38.295 17.038 38.804 17.057 39.313 17.066 39.822 17.076 40.331 17.086 40.840 17.098 41.349 17.110 41.858 17.118 42.367 17.131 42.876 17.140 43.385 17.154 43.894 17.167 44.403 17.178 44.912 17.193 45.421 17.205 45.930 17.218 46.439 17.232 46.948 17.249 47.457 17.258 47.966 17.284 48.475 17.299 48.984 17.314 49.493 17.333 50.002 17.354 50.511 17.375 51.020 17.389 51.529 17.408 52.038 17.422 52.547 17.429 53.056 17.443 53.565 17.455 54.074 17.468 54.583 17.483 55.092 17.502 55.601 17.511 56.110 17.524 56.619 17.536 57.128 17.550 57.637 17.564 58.146 17.576 58.655 17.591 59.164 17.605 59.673 17.619 60.182 17.633 60.691 17.647 61.200 17.662 61.709 17.676 62.218 17.687 62.727 17.704 63.236 17.722 63.745 17.734 64.254 17.753 64.763 17.770 65.272 17.780 65.781 17.800 66.290 17.813 66.799 17.830 67.308 17.856 67.817 17.866 68.326 17.891 68.835 17.915 69.344 17.925 69.853 17.954 70.362 17.971 70.871 17.996 71.380 18.023 71.889 18.039 72.398 18.063 72.907 18.091 73.416 18.113 73.925 18.130 74.434 18.160 74.943 18.184 75.452 18.223 75.961 18.248 76.470 18.272 76.979 18.303 77.488 18.341 77.997 18.369 78.506 18.390 79.015 18.422 79.524 18.451 80.033 18.485 80.542 18.516 81.051 18.546 81.560 18.580 82.069 18.606 82.578 18.635 83.087 18.660 83.596 18.686 84.105 18.713 84.614 18.744 85.123 18.769 85.632 18.789 86.141 18.847 86.650 18.869 87.159 18.912 87.668 18.945 88.177 18.974 88.686 19.009 89.195 19.024 89.704 19.074 90.213 19.114 90.722 19.148 91.231 19.174 91.740 19.206 92.249 19.239 92.758 19.265 93.267 19.309 93.776 19.348 94.285 19.370 94.794 19.402 95.303 19.425 95.812 19.452 96.321 19.469 96.830 19.503 97.339 19.534 97.848 19.563 98.357 19.588 98.866 19.625 99.375 19.635 99.884 19.661 100.393 19.679 100.902 19.705 101.411 19.720 101.920 19.737 102.429 19.764 102.938 19.787 103.447 19.804 103.956 19.838 104.465 19.853 104.974 19.866 105.483 19.878 105.992 19.899 106.501 19.917 107.010 19.931 107.519 19.950 108.028 19.971 108.537 19.992 109.046 20.004 109.555 20.028 110.064 20.054 110.573 20.077 111.082 20.102 111.591 20.133 112.100 20.158 112.609 20.189 113.118 20.216 113.627 20.239 114.136 20.270 114.645 20.302 115.154 20.345 115.663 20.367 116.172 20.409 116.681 20.440 117.190 20.472 117.699 20.496 118.208 20.527 118.717 20.561 119.226 20.599 119.735 20.622 120.244 20.653 120.753 20.698 121.262 20.728 121.771 20.747 122.280 20.783 122.789 20.805 123.298 20.853 123.807 20.878 124.316 20.918 124.825 20.948 125.334 20.986 125.843 21.012 126.352 21.047 126.861 21.082 127.370 21.120 127.879 21.148 128.388 21.183 128.897 21.200 129.406 21.227 129.915 21.261 130.424 21.271 130.933 21.300 131.442 21.320 131.951 21.345 132.460 21.366 132.969 21.405 133.478 21.418 133.987 21.448 134.496 21.471 135.005 21.493 135.514 21.518 136.023 21.547 136.532 21.568 137.041 21.591 137.550 21.630 138.059 21.661 138.568 21.676 139.077 21.716 139.586 21.751 140.095 21.782 140.604 21.799 141.113 21.827 141.622 21.853 142.131 21.884 142.640 21.907 143.149 21.927 143.658 21.947 144.167 21.990 144.676 22.012 145.185 22.034 145.694 22.065 146.203 22.095 146.712 22.118 147.221 22.145 147.730 22.189 148.239 22.205 148.748 22.235 149.257 22.254 149.766 22.276 150.275 22.307 150.784 22.330 151.293 22.363 151.802 22.381 152.311 22.410 152.820 22.423 153.329 22.448 153.838 22.464 154.347 22.494 154.856 22.513 155.365 22.541 155.874 22.561 156.383 22.580 156.892 22.595 157.401 22.619 157.910 22.650 158.419 22.678 158.928 22.700 159.437 22.719 159.946 22.743 160.455 22.764 160.964 22.788 161.473 22.805 161.982 22.828 162.491 22.845 163.000 22.877 163.509 22.891 164.018 22.913 164.527 22.935 165.036 22.962 165.545 22.977 166.054 23.010 166.563 23.025 167.072 23.046 167.581 23.073 168.090 23.089 168.599 23.112 169.108 23.129 169.617 23.144 170.126 23.157 170.635 23.175 171.144 23.192 171.653 23.211 172.162 23.231 172.671 23.246 173.180 23.266 173.689 23.281 174.198 23.300 174.707 23.316 175.216 23.334 175.725 23.349 176.234 23.365 176.743 23.386 177.252 23.404 177.761 23.420 178.270 23.433 178.779 23.450 179.288 23.465 179.797 23.490 180.306 23.503 180.815 23.524 181.324 23.547 181.833 23.569 182.342 23.587 182.851 23.606 183.360 23.622 183.869 23.642 184.378 23.661 184.887 23.679 185.396 23.692 185.905 23.708 186.414 23.724 186.923 23.739 187.432 23.753 187.941 23.769 188.450 23.786 188.959 23.803 189.468 23.815 189.977 23.841 190.486 23.854 190.995 23.871 191.504 23.889 192.013 23.904 192.522 23.923 193.031 23.936 193.540 23.955 194.049 23.972 194.558 23.988 195.067 23.999 195.576 24.018 196.085 24.030 196.594 24.042 197.103 24.064 197.612 24.078 198.121 24.092 198.630 24.104 199.139 24.119 199.648 24.137 200.157 24.149 200.666 24.162 201.175 24.179 201.684 24.189 202.193 24.199 202.702 24.219 203.211 24.236 203.720 24.250 204.229 24.261 204.738 24.279 205.247 24.299 205.756 24.314 206.265 24.329 206.774 24.347 207.283 24.360 207.792 24.382 208.301 24.406 208.810 24.431 209.319 24.461 209.828 24.477 210.337 24.497 210.846 24.521 211.355 24.541 211.864 24.575 212.373 24.598 212.882 24.619 213.391 24.643 213.900 24.665 214.409 24.695 214.918 24.711 215.427 24.735 215.936 24.754 216.445 24.784 216.954 24.802 217.463 24.821 217.972 24.852 218.481 24.869 218.990 24.906 219.499 24.926 220.008 24.950 220.517 24.979 221.026 25.002 221.535 25.026 222.044 25.053 222.553 25.080 223.062 25.101 223.571 25.125 224.080 25.144 224.589 25.170 225.098 25.186 225.607 25.202 226.116 25.221 226.625 25.244 227.134 25.260 227.643 25.277 228.152 25.306 228.661 25.318 229.170 25.334 229.679 25.350 230.188 25.370 230.697 25.384 231.206 25.401 231.715 25.421 232.224 25.437 232.733 25.457 233.242 25.469 233.751 25.490 234.260 25.505 234.769 25.521 235.278 25.542 235.787 25.565 236.296 25.573 236.805 25.591 237.314 25.610 237.823 25.624 238.332 25.640 238.841 25.664 239.350 25.676 239.859 25.700 240.368 25.715 240.877 25.727 241.386 25.751 241.895 25.773 242.404 25.789 242.913 25.812 243.422 25.826 243.931 25.848 244.440 25.868 244.949 25.888 245.458 25.911 245.967 25.928 246.476 25.946 246.985 25.958 247.494 25.976 248.003 26.000 248.512 26.013 249.021 26.030 249.530 26.042 250.039 26.061 250.548 26.076 251.057 26.091 251.566 26.108 252.075 26.123 252.584 26.139 253.093 26.156 253.602 26.169 254.111 26.191 254.620 26.198 255.129 26.214 255.638 26.233 256.147 26.244 256.656 26.267 257.165 26.277 257.674 26.292 258.183 26.305 258.692 26.323 259.201 26.339 259.710 26.364 260.219 26.374 260.728 26.387 261.237 26.407 261.746 26.420 262.255 26.431 262.764 26.449 263.273 26.462 263.782 26.476 264.291 26.493 264.800 26.507 265.309 26.520 265.818 26.537 266.327 26.548 266.836 26.563 267.345 26.579 267.854 26.590 268.363 26.607 268.872 26.621 269.381 26.633 269.890 26.649 270.399 26.672 270.908 26.684 271.417 26.700 271.926 26.718 272.435 26.732 272.944 26.741 273.453 26.761 273.962 26.779 274.471 26.796 274.980 26.809 275.489 26.831 275.998 26.848 276.507 26.869 277.016 26.886 277.525 26.902 278.034 26.928 278.543 26.947 279.052 26.964 279.561 26.981 280.070 26.999 280.579 27.012 281.088 27.027 281.597 27.047 282.106 27.061 282.615 27.078 283.124 27.094 283.633 27.110 284.142 27.127 284.651 27.144 285.160 27.157 285.669 27.178 286.178 27.200 286.687 27.212 287.196 27.235 287.705 27.261 288.214 27.284 288.723 27.300 289.232 27.325 289.741 27.354 290.250 27.369 290.759 27.387 291.268 27.409 291.777 27.420 292.286 27.441 292.795 27.463 293.304 27.479 293.813 27.496 294.322 27.514 294.831 27.538 295.340 27.552 295.849 27.575 296.358 27.592 296.867 27.615 297.376 27.631 297.885 27.644 298.394 27.665 298.903 27.685 299.412 27.703 299.921 27.722 300.430 27.738 300.939 27.754 301.448 27.769 301.957 27.784 302.466 27.801 302.975 27.821 303.484 27.835 303.993 27.856 304.502 27.870 305.011 27.895 305.520 27.907 306.029 27.925 306.538 27.938 307.047 27.952 307.556 27.968 308.065 27.984 308.574 28.006 309.083 28.018 309.592 28.031 310.101 28.048 310.610 28.062 311.119 28.082 311.628 28.101 312.137 28.113 312.646 28.126 313.155 28.141 313.664 28.156 314.173 28.180 314.682 28.197 315.191 28.208 315.700 28.220 316.209 28.237 316.718 28.257 317.227 28.271 317.736 28.287 318.245 28.298 318.754 28.319 319.263 28.335 319.772 28.351 320.281 28.368 320.790 28.383 321.299 28.399 321.808 28.412 322.317 28.430 322.826 28.445 323.335 28.462 323.844 28.477 324.353 28.495 324.862 28.513 325.371 28.526 325.880 28.551 326.389 28.561 326.898 28.585 327.407 28.608 327.916 28.625 328.425 28.651 328.934 28.686 329.443 28.704 329.952 28.744 330.461 28.762 330.970 28.780 331.479 28.799 331.988 28.816 332.497 28.837 333.006 28.846 333.515 28.860 334.024 28.883 334.533 28.894 335.042 28.914 335.551 28.928 336.060 28.952 336.569 28.975 337.078 28.989 337.587 29.007 338.096 29.031 338.605 29.051 339.114 29.062 339.623 29.077 340.132 29.088 340.641 29.115 341.150 29.137 341.659 29.148 342.168 29.159 342.677 29.179 343.186 29.195 343.695 29.211 344.204 29.234 344.713 29.255 345.222 29.272 345.731 29.296 346.240 29.320 346.749 29.335 347.258 29.364 347.767 29.386 348.276 29.408 348.785 29.435 349.294 29.454 349.803 29.476 350.312 29.498 350.821 29.516 351.330 29.539 351.839 29.556 352.348 29.582 352.857 29.600 353.366 29.617 353.875 29.636 354.384 29.654 354.893 29.671 355.402 29.688 355.911 29.709 356.420 29.734 356.929 29.778 357.438 29.795 357.947 29.807 358.456 29.827 358.965 29.838 359.474 29.855 359.983 29.877 360.492 29.885 361.001 29.902 361.510 29.918 362.019 29.936 362.528 29.946 363.037 29.960 363.546 29.978 364.055 29.989 364.564 30.005 365.073 30.017 365.582 30.026 366.091 30.041 366.600 30.074 367.109 30.085 367.618 30.094 368.127 30.107 368.636 30.120 369.145 30.135 369.654 30.148 370.163 30.174 370.672 30.216 371.181 30.224 371.690 30.238 372.199 30.250 372.708 30.279 373.217 30.288 373.726 30.312 374.235 30.322 374.744 30.345 375.253 30.365 375.762 30.374 376.271 30.383 376.780 30.397 377.289 30.407 377.798 30.421 378.307 30.436 378.816 30.448 379.325 30.470 379.834 30.494 380.343 30.505 380.852 30.520 381.361 30.543 381.870 30.550 382.379 30.572 382.888 30.586 383.397 30.595 383.906 30.617 384.415 30.636 384.924 30.644 385.433 30.669 385.942 30.684 386.451 30.704 386.960 30.712 387.469 30.724 387.978 30.755 388.487 30.767 388.996 30.796 389.505 30.803 390.014 30.823 390.523 30.838 391.032 30.854 391.541 30.864 392.050 30.894 392.559 30.905 393.068 30.914 393.577 30.922 394.086 30.956 394.595 30.967 395.104 30.979 395.613 31.001 396.122 31.024 396.631 31.030 397.140 31.044 397.649 31.065 398.158 31.078 398.667 31.096 399.176 31.110 399.685 31.128 400.194 31.139 400.703 31.156 401.212 31.173 401.721 31.191 402.230 31.209 402.739 31.221 403.248 31.240 403.757 31.255 404.266 31.269 404.775 31.285 405.284 31.298 405.793 31.313 406.302 31.330 406.811 31.344 407.320 31.358 407.829 31.376 408.338 31.392 408.847 31.409 409.356 31.423 409.865 31.435 410.374 31.452 410.883 31.465 411.392 31.481 411.901 31.494 412.410 31.510 412.919 31.526 413.428 31.538 413.937 31.554 414.446 31.565 414.955 31.576 415.464 31.595 415.973 31.605 416.482 31.624 416.991 31.641 417.500 31.655 418.009 31.672 418.518 31.689 419.027 31.699 419.536 31.718 420.045 31.725 420.554 31.746 421.063 31.760 421.572 31.774 422.081 31.795 422.590 31.802 423.099 31.808 423.608 31.833 424.117 31.839 424.626 31.851 425.135 31.873 425.644 31.887 426.153 31.905 426.662 31.921 427.171 31.936 427.680 31.941 428.189 31.959 428.698 31.979 429.207 31.985 429.716 32.002 430.225 32.026 430.734 32.038 431.243 32.049 431.752 32.067 432.261 32.086 432.770 32.099 433.279 32.121 433.788 32.136 434.297 32.154 434.806 32.166 435.315 32.182 435.824 32.189 436.333 32.196 436.842 32.220 437.351 32.228 437.860 32.235 438.369 32.256 438.878 32.268 439.387 32.287 439.896 32.294 440.405 32.320 440.914 32.326 441.423 32.328 441.932 32.348 442.441 32.372 442.950 32.379 443.459 32.383 443.968 32.407 444.477 32.417 444.986 32.437 445.495 32.445 446.004 32.471 446.513 32.480 447.022 32.487 447.531 32.497 448.040 32.516 448.549 32.539 449.058 32.578 449.567 32.598 450.076 32.612 450.585 32.624 451.094 32.655 451.603 32.682 452.112 32.692 452.621 32.704 453.130 32.719 453.639 32.749 454.148 32.759 454.657 32.767 455.166 32.782 455.675 32.804 456.184 32.813 456.693 32.821 457.202 32.832 457.711 32.860 458.220 32.866 458.729 32.872 459.238 32.878 459.747 32.889 460.256 32.906 460.765 32.926 461.274 32.939 461.783 32.949 462.292 32.954 462.801 32.964 463.310 32.976 463.819 32.996 464.328 33.007 464.837 33.029 465.346 33.044 465.855 33.050 466.364 33.061 466.873 33.073 467.382 33.082 467.891 33.100 468.400 33.122 468.909 33.130 469.418 33.137 469.927 33.151 470.436 33.162 470.945 33.182 471.454 33.197 471.963 33.221 472.472 33.236 472.981 33.245 473.490 33.257 473.999 33.270 474.508 33.283 475.017 33.299 475.526 33.318 476.035 33.355 476.544 33.379 477.053 33.389 477.562 33.404 478.071 33.422 478.580 33.437 479.089 33.472 479.598 33.494 480.107 33.510 480.616 33.526 481.125 33.542 481.634 33.562 482.143 33.577 482.652 33.587 483.161 33.600 483.670 33.612 484.179 33.641 484.688 33.655 485.197 33.663 485.706 33.674 486.215 33.686 486.724 33.698 487.233 33.710 487.742 33.722 488.251 33.735 488.760 33.747 489.269 33.767 489.778 33.781 490.287 33.789 490.796 33.800 491.305 33.823 491.814 33.839 492.323 33.846 492.832 33.857 493.341 33.871 493.850 33.896 494.359 33.910 494.868 33.912 495.377 33.931 495.886 33.946 496.395 33.955 496.904 33.973 497.413 33.983 497.922 33.995 498.431 34.010 498.940 34.018 499.449 34.032 499.958 34.047 500.467 34.058 500.976 34.090 501.485 34.098 501.994 34.112 502.503 34.125 503.012 34.142 503.521 34.151 504.030 34.164 504.539 34.178 505.048 34.196 505.557 34.204 506.066 34.220 506.575 34.232 507.084 34.251 507.593 34.276 508.102 34.286 508.611 34.299 509.120 34.320 509.629 34.332 510.138 34.342 510.647 34.371 511.156 34.386 511.665 34.405 512.174 34.425 512.683 34.439 513.192 34.458 513.701 34.477 514.210 34.487 514.719 34.504 515.228 34.515 515.737 34.530 516.246 34.542 516.755 34.557 517.264 34.578 517.773 34.585 518.282 34.596 518.791 34.606 519.300 34.618 519.809 34.634 520.318 34.643 520.827 34.663 521.336 34.670 521.845 34.685 522.354 34.697 522.863 34.710 523.372 34.728 523.881 34.735 524.390 34.752 524.899 34.763 525.408 34.782 525.917 34.792 526.426 34.815 526.935 34.833 527.444 34.849 527.953 34.866 528.462 34.885 528.971 34.901 529.480 34.922 529.989 34.934 530.498 34.948 531.007 34.965 531.516 34.977 532.025 34.995 532.534 35.008 533.043 35.022 533.552 35.032 534.061 35.046 534.570 35.062 535.079 35.076 535.588 35.091 536.097 35.104 536.606 35.118 537.115 35.131 537.624 35.145 538.133 35.159 538.642 35.172 539.151 35.182 539.660 35.200 540.169 35.211 540.678 35.224 541.187 35.237 541.696 35.250 542.205 35.262 542.714 35.274 543.223 35.283 543.732 35.299 544.241 35.317 544.750 35.333 545.259 35.347 545.768 35.363 546.277 35.381 546.786 35.394 547.295 35.406 547.804 35.426 548.313 35.444 548.822 35.456 549.331 35.467 549.840 35.484 550.349 35.495 550.858 35.507 551.367 35.517 551.876 35.528 552.385 35.540 552.894 35.550 553.403 35.554 553.912 35.562 554.421 35.576 554.930 35.587 555.439 35.601 555.948 35.611 556.457 35.622 556.966 35.633 557.475 35.648 557.984 35.660 558.493 35.677 559.002 35.690 559.511 35.697 560.020 35.710 560.529 35.724 561.038 35.738 561.547 35.747 562.056 35.768 562.565 35.778 563.074 35.788 563.583 35.797 564.092 35.806 564.601 35.819 565.110 35.828 565.619 35.840 566.128 35.852 566.637 35.860 567.146 35.871 567.655 35.883 568.164 35.898 568.673 35.907 569.182 35.920 569.691 35.933 570.200 35.945 570.709 35.953 571.218 35.964 571.727 35.979 572.236 35.988 572.745 36.003 573.254 36.011 573.763 36.025 574.272 36.039 574.781 36.047 575.290 36.062 575.799 36.073 576.308 36.084 576.817 36.096 577.326 36.104 577.835 36.114 578.344 36.125 578.853 36.137 579.362 36.152 579.871 36.167 580.380 36.175 580.889 36.185 581.398 36.198 581.907 36.209 582.416 36.219 582.925 36.233 583.434 36.249 583.943 36.257 584.452 36.270 584.961 36.278 585.470 36.289 585.979 36.299 586.488 36.313 586.997 36.323 587.506 36.333 588.015 36.347 588.524 36.360 589.033 36.372 589.542 36.381 590.051 36.391 590.560 36.406 591.069 36.415 591.578 36.429 592.087 36.438 592.596 36.453 593.105 36.463 593.614 36.475 594.123 36.483 594.632 36.499 595.141 36.510 595.650 36.521 596.159 36.531 596.668 36.544 597.177 36.552 597.686 36.566 598.195 36.579 598.704 36.588 599.213 36.600 599.722 36.613 600.231 36.625 600.740 36.637 601.249 36.647 601.758 36.660 602.267 36.671 602.776 36.683 603.285 36.697 603.794 36.706 604.303 36.718 604.812 36.729 605.321 36.740 605.830 36.750 606.339 36.762 606.848 36.774 607.357 36.787 607.866 36.798 608.375 36.809 608.884 36.820 609.393 36.830 609.902 36.846 610.411 36.861 610.920 36.871 611.429 36.885 611.938 36.897 612.447


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Maryland Drillholes

Click on the hole location or in the area of interest.

Wells shown in red or blue. Red denotes heat flow value available. Blue denotes temperature and geothermal gradient (only) available because no rock thermal conductivity was available.

Seismic lines shown in red.

Dikes and Triassic basin boundaries shown in green.

Maryland C-43b C-43a C-30 C-46 C-45 C-33 C-31 C-47 C-53 C-52 C-50 C-51 Crisfield

BG-1 C30 C31 C32 C33 C43A C43B C45 C46 C47
C50 C51 C52 C53 CA1 DGT1 PP1 SI3 USGS3 USGS4
All Maryland Temperature Logs
Crisfield Deep Geothermal Test Site



Return to: Geothermal Homepage Geological Sciences Virginia Tech

Regional Geophysics Laboratory, Department of Geological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1046 Derring Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0422. Comments to: costain@vt.edu

Last updated: 10/31/97


Title

Welcome to the Crisfield, MD, Deep Geothermal Test Site Homepage. Here you will find details of how the site was selected, the deep drilling program, and results. As shown on the following plots of temperature versus depth, this site was selected for a deep geothermal test because 1) it indicated reaching the highest temperatures at the shallowest depths, and 2) there was a potential space-heating application nearby.

All Maryland Temperature Logs

Geophysical logs of deep geothermal test at Crisfield
Table of temperature values Plot of temperature values
Table of density values (gm/cm3) Plot of density values
Sonic log values (usec/foot) Plot of velocity values (Km/sec)

Limited aquifer tests were conducted within three zones of the Patuxent Formation by Gruy Federal, Inc., and interpreted by The Johns Hopkins University. The zone shown in the table below was selected for detailed analysis after preliminary testing due to its greater productivity and generally more reliable and complete data. The values shown were reported by K. Yu at the Geothermal Energy and the Eastern U.S. Technical Information Interchange Meeting at Berkeley Springs, WV, on October 30-31, 1979 in a presentation entitled "Crisfield, Maryland, Well Characteristics Determined Using All Test Data". No detailed information concerning the methods used to arrive at the values listed have been published.

Some Geothermal and Hydrologic Parameters Over the Depth Interval 1,189.3 to 1229.3 meters
Permeability 110 millidarcies
Transmissivity 1.50 cm2/sec
Storage coefficient 3.9 X 10-3

A more comprehensive analysis was provided by Laczniak (1980) as an M.S. Thesis in the Virginia Tech Department of Geological Sciences entitled "Analysis of the relationship between energy output and well spacing in a typical Atlantic Coastal Plain doublet geothermal system", 100 pp. Laczniak used an "integrated finite difference" numerical model developed by Lippmann and others (1977) to simulate pumping and re-injection in a typical Atlantic Coastal Plain geologic setting. The interested reader is referred to this Thesis to see the results of thermal and fluid-flow fields for a 3-dimensional rectangular liquid-dominated low-temperature system. Laczniak concluded:

"The overall results quantify the potential usefulness of geothermal resources within the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A rested doublet system with similar hydrologic and thermal conditions as those encountered at the Crisfield, MD, geothermal test site, a well spacing of 1,000 meters, a permeability of 100 md, and a pumping-injection stress of 500 gpm (injection temperature 43.5oC could produce 5.5 million Btu's per hour over a period greater than 30 years."

There were other sites in the southeastern U.S. that would have yielded higher temperatures at deeper depths where the wedge of Coastal Plain sediments was thicker than at Crisfield. For example, the temperature at a depth of 300 m at Stumpy Point (Hole C-19) in North Carolina was 26oC, similar to the value of 27oC at Crisfield (DGT-1), but the thickness of water-saturated sediments at Stumpy Point is greater and so a deeper hole would encounter higher temperatures if the hole went all the way to basement; however, although the temperatures at greater depths (there is a thicker sedimentary insulator there) would have been more attractive as a geothermal resource, there isn't much around Stumpy Point to offer as a space-heating application, and that, as well as temperature, was a prime consideration in the eventual selection of Crisfield, MD, for the deep geothermal test.


Return to: Geothermal Homepage Geological Sciences Virginia Tech

Regional Geophysics Laboratory, Department of Geological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1046 Derring Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0422. Comments to: costain@vt.edu

Last updated: 11/7/00